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教师招聘考试:中小学英语基础知识资料(9)

一、 主 要 句 式

  (一) 知识概要

  初中所学的句型一般要分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。 陈述句中有肯定句与否定句之分。其中可以分为以下五种:① 主语+不及物动词。如:I arrived at six last night.② 主语+及物动词+宾语,如:I bought a good English?Chinese Dictionary yesterday.③ 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语,如:Please tell me a story before I go to bed. 这样可加双宾语的句子有buy,tell, give, ask, pass, teach.④ 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语,如:I found it impossible to do it. Please keep the classroom clean and tidy.⑤ 主语+系动词+表语,如:Tom is an American boy. The grass turned green in spring.在初中常见的句型中有There be…句型,表示存在某种事物,如:There is a map on the wall?其be动词的形式要与其后面相近的那个名词相一致。要注意的是这种句型加入助动词后,也要保持be动词,不要换用have,如:There is going to be a meeting tomorrow.

  在句子结构中要注意主谓一致的问题,即句子的主语与谓语动词要相呼应。要注意的有如下几点:① 用and连接两个主语时一般应视为复数,但如一人身兼两职时则要用单数谓语动词形式,如:A singer and dancer is coming to our party. a singer and dancer 既歌唱又可舞的演员。而 a singer and a dancer 则要译为:一位歌唱家和一位舞蹈家。②有些以 s 结尾的名词谓语动词要用单数,如: The news is good (news 为不可数名词)。③ 有量词时应按量词的数量计算;如: This pair of glasses is good? My glasses are broken. ④有些形单却意为复数的名词,如: People are coming here? 这样的词还有 Police, 如果要讲一个警察时,应讲 a policeman。 两个警察为 two policemen。 又如 a policewoman, two policewomen? ⑤ 所有不定代词 each, either, neither, one, the other, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, someone, something … 要作为单数如: Someone is waiting for you?

  在并列句中表示联合关系的连词有: and not only … but also, neither … nor, either … or? 如: My sister and my parents are going to the cinema。

  表示转折关系的并列连词有: but 和 yet, 如: She is a good student, but she didn’t pass the final exam. 又如: I think the news is strange, yet it is true

  表示选择关系的连词有:or, either … or,如: Hurry up, or you will be late for school?

  表示因果关系的并列连词有: for, so 如: They studied very hard, so they all passed the exam

  在初中范围复合句中主要有状语从句和宾语从句(名词性从句)两种,而定语从句(形容词性从句)要在高中讲述,为了使同学阅读文章方便,我们将 在下面另一章予以介绍。

  我们首先来看宾语从句。① 在及物动词的后面可以接一个名词来充当宾语,如: I knew the man, 而这时也可以用一个句子来充当宾语,如: I knew that he was a good man? 这时宾语从句的连接词有 that, (that 只在从句中起联接作用,不在句中充当语法成分,既不是主语也不是宾语,所以在口语中常常被省略。如: I am sure (that) she has passed the exam? ②if, whether 它们在宾语从句中只起连接作用,不起语法作用,当作是否讲。从句中有 or not 结构时,要用 whether, 如: I ask him if (whether) he has had his lunch? I asks him whether he has had his lunch or not?  ③ what 它在宾语从句中除了作连接词外,还要作主语或宾语成份,如: I don’t understand what you said? (what 作 said 的宾语)。又如: I asked him what made him sick (what 在宾语从句中作主语)。④ who,它也和what一样,在句中除作连接词外,可以充当句中的成份,如:I know who she is looking for? ⑤ whose 如: I want to know whose book this is? ⑥ which 如: Do you know which book is mine?

  在连接词中还有4个常用的连接副词,① how 它的应用最广,如: how much, how many, how long, how soon, how old …。如: How much does it cost? ② when 它只是连接时间状语,如: Please tell me when the meeting will begin? ③ where 它连接地点状语,如: Where are you from? ④ why 它要连接的是原因状语从句,如: The teacher asked why Tom didn’t come to school.

  在考试中常见到的考点是: 宾语从句的时态与主句时态的呼应问题。① 主句谓语动词如果是现在时或将来时,宾语从句的时态可以是任何所需要的时态, 如: I know he didn’t come. 我知道他没来。 I know he will come tomorrow? 我知道他明天来。I know he has gone to London? 我知道他已去伦敦了。 ② 主句中的谓语动词若是过去时,宾语从句也要用过去时态中的某一种。比如: 一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时。除了在表达宇宙中的客观真理时,不能用现在时态。如: I wanted to know when he would come? The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun

  状语从句主要有时间状语从句,其连接词有:after, before, when, as, as soon as, until (till), while, since, by?其中较难掌握的有以下几点: ① until (till) 直到,在用 until 表达时间状语的句子中,主句中的动词是要十分小心去选择。如动词是持续性动词,它要用肯定句,如: I studied hard until 12 o’clock last night. 如果动词是瞬间截止性动词,则要用否定句,如: He didn’t go to bed until his mother came back? ?② 由?since, for, by, before 来引导的时间状语从句。 since 引导的时间状语是动作的开始时间,如: I have studied English since 1990? 而由 by 引导的时间状语通常是动作的结束时间,如: I had learned 25 English songs by the end of last term? 而before 则多用于完成时, ago 则多用于一般过去时,如: He had finished his work before twelve yesterday? I left my hometown two years ago? ③ 在状语从句中用一般现在时或一般过去时表示将来。它们可能是主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时,如: If it rains, they won’t go to the park on Sunday? 也可以主句是一般过去时,从句用一般过去进行时,如: He said if it rained the next day he would not go to the park?

  考试中常见的考点有:要学生区别是条件、时间状语从句还是宾语从句,因在宾语从句中该用什么时态用什么时态,如: I want to know if he will come here tomorrow? 在宾语从句中的条件状语从句与主句的关系,如: I want to know if it rains he will come here tomorrow

  在原因状语从句中主要是① because, 应译为”因为”。它表达的因果关系最强,如: He didn’t pass the exam because he didn’t study hard? ② since 应译为”既然”,如: Since you were ill yesterday? I left some notes on your desk? ③ as 应译为”由于”,如: As it is too hot we’d better go swimming? since 与 as 所表达的因果关系远比 because 弱得多。而 for 表达的因果关系最弱。它不能用于句首,如: He studies hard, for he wants to go to college?

  在比较状语从句中有同级比较 as … as, 如: This book is as good as that one? 要注意的有两点:① as … as 中间要用原级而不是比较级。② 用形容词还是副词,如: Mary writes as carefully as Tom? 而其否定句为 not as (so) … as, 如: They didn’t work so hard as we did, 而不同级比较用比较级加 than, 如: He is younger than I am? 要注意的是表示”越来越”这一概念时有两个句型:① 比较级+and+比较级,如: The days are getting longer and longer? The little girl is becoming more and more beautiful? ② 定冠词 the + 比较级+ the + 比较级,如: The harder you study, the more you can learn? 方式状语中要注意的是as (连词)与 like (介词)的区别。 as 作为连词其后接从句,如: Please do it as I did it? 但后面的句子常作省略,如: Please do it as I? 而 like 是介词,其后要接的是宾语,如: Please do it like me

  结果和目的状语从句主要有 so … that, so that, in order that等几种用法。① so … that?用在单数可数名词前,so + 形容词 + a + 名词 + that,如: She is so beautiful a girl that everyone likes her? 或用 such + a + 形容词 + 名词 + that, 如: She is such a beautiful girl that everyone likes her? ② 在不可数名词或可数名词复数前只能用 such, 如: It is such good weather we want to go for a picnic? 又如: They are such good players that they should win the game. ③ 在much, many, few, little 之前只能用so, 如: I have so little money that I can’t buy it? ④ so … that 之间只有形容词时,则不能用 such, 如: It is so good that I want to buy? ⑤ so that 其后接从句,如: I got up earlier so that I could catch the first bus?

  (二) 正误辨析

  [误] The stories in that book was written many years ago?

  [正] The stories in that book were written many years ago.

  [析] 作主语的名词、代词或不定式、动名词,它们往往要带有修饰词,这些词可能是形容词,也可能是短语,但谓语动词还是要取决于这个主语的数,要记住的是一个名词不可能在同一句中作两个不同的语法成份,如: book 作了 of 的介词宾语则不可能再作主语了。

  [误] To read many books are good for you?

  [正] To read many books is good for you?

  [析] 不定式作主语应该看作单数主语。

  [误] What he said are right?

  [正] What he said is right?

  [析] 从句作主语一定要按单数主语看待。

  [正] The rich is not always happy?

  [误] The rich are not always happy?

  [析] 形容词+定冠词表示一类人,谓语动词应用复数,如: The young are very interested in study and sports?

  [误] The school master and writer are coming?

  [正] The school master and writer is coming?

  [析] 本句应译为:校长兼作家就要来了。而 The school master and the writer are coming? 则要译为:校长和一个作家要来了。在英语表达法中确实有 The girl and boy are playing on the grass? 这应译为:一个女孩,一个男孩在操场上玩。因为不可能这样两个概念作用在一个人身上。又如: the husband and wife? 夫妻二人。

  [误] You or she go to get some water for us?

  [正] You or she goes to get some water for us?

  [析] 由 or 连接的两个主语应以离谓语动词近的那一个计算其数。这样的用法还有 either … or,neither … nor, not only … but also 也有人称作”就近原则”。

  [误] The teacher with a lot of students come into the classroom?

  [正] The teacher with a lot of students comes into the classroom?

  [析] 真正的主语是 the teacher, 而 with 短语是伴随状态,不影响主语的数。

  [误] My glasses is broken?

  [正] My glasses are broken?

  [误] This pair of glasses are good?

  [正] This pair of glasses is good?

  [误] These kinds of butter is good.

  [正] These kinds of butter are good?

  [析] 英语中有些名词只有复数形式,如: glasses 眼镜, shorts 短裤等。如没有量词在前时,要用复数谓语动词,但有了量词之后则要按量词的单复数计算。

  [误] One of the boys are going to take part in the match?

  [正] One of the boys is going to take part in the match?

  [析] One of 结构应以 one 来计算主语的数。

  [误] Half of the work are done?

  [正] Half of the work is done?

  [误] Half of the books is read?

  [正] Half of the books are read?

  [析] 在小于1的数量词作主语时,如: 2 3 ,80%,0.35… + of +名词,这时主语的数应按 of 后面的名词计算。如果名词是不可数名词或可数名词单数,则谓语动词要用单数,如名词是复数则要用复数谓语动词。

  [误] Each sides are full of trees?

  [正] Each side is full of trees?

  [误] Both side is full of trees?

  [正] Both sides are full of trees?

  [析] each, either 其后都要加单数名词,而 both 后要加复数名词。 如: each, either, another, little, a little, much等作主语时,谓语动词全部要用单数形式。

  [误] The boys each has an apple?

  [正] The boys each have an apple?

  [析] each 作同位语时,不影响句子的主语。

  [误] Everyone of us has a ticket for the concert?

  [正] Every one of us has a ticket for the concert?

  [析] everyone, someone, everybody … 在作主语时都不能加 of 结构。

  [误] Girls like dancing very much, but few likes playing football?

  [正] Girls like dancing very much, but few like playing football?

  [析] few 虽然含意上是”几乎没有”,但作主语时仍要当作复数。

  [误] The number of the workers in that factory are two hundred?

  [正] The number of the workers in that factory is two hundred?

  [析] the number of 意为:某某的数字是…… 如: the number of students 学生人数, the number of players 运动员人数。不论数字如何都应看作单数。而 a number of 与 many 意思相同,其后加可数名词复数,谓语动词用复数形式。如: A number of students are playing on the grass?

  [误] The rest of the students is here?

  [正] The rest of the students are here?

  [误] The rest of the work are done?

  [正] The rest of the work is done?

[析] the rest of 的用法与2/3,一半,80%+ of 的结构一致, of 后面为可数名词复数时用复数谓语动词,为不可数名词或可数名词单数时用单数谓语动词。这样用法还有 lots of, a lot of, plenty of。

  [误] The news in today’s newspaper are not bad?

  [正] The news in today’s newspaper is not bad?

  [析] 有些以 s 结尾的名词要用作不可数名词,它们是:news, physics, mathematics, thanks, …

  [误] The Chinese is kind and friendly?

  [正] The Chinese are kind and friendly?

  [析] Chinese 作为中文来讲是单数名词,但作为中国人讲是单复同形的名词。如: one Chinese, two Chinese … 而 The Chinese = The people of China 要用复数谓语动词。

  [误] This dictionary is too expensive for me? Ten dollars are a big sum for me

  [正] This dictionary is too expensive for me? Ten dollars is a big sum for me

  [析] 表示一段时间,一笔金钱,一段距离,都应看作单数名词。

  [误] Who are going to take part in our football match?

  [正] Who is going to take part in our football match?

  [析] 用 who 提问时,习惯上用单数谓语动词,但 which 则要视其情况而定,如: which are better these shoeses or those shoes? 又如: which is better this one or that one?

  [误] What a hot weather it is!

  [误] How hot the weather it is!

  [正] What hot weather it is!

  [正] How hot the weather is!

  [析] 感叹句是用来表达说话人的喜怒哀乐的感情。它由 what 与 how 作句子的开始,判定是用 what 还是用 how 的最好办法是将它们换为陈述句,比如: What the hot weather it is! 应转换为: It is the hot weather? 那么句子的起点是单词 it。 再来看感叹句中 it 前有不可数名词 weather, 则只能用 what。 再看第二句 How hot the weather is! 转为陈述句时为: The weather is hot?这时句子的开始单词为 the weather, 再来看感叹句在 the weather 前只有形容词,所以应用 how。 至于是用 what a 还是 what 要看名词的具体情况而定,单数可数名词加 what a 其余的加用 what。

  [误] We have to sing this, have we?

  [误] We have to sing this, haven’t we?

  [正] We have to sing this, don’t we?

  [析] 在反意疑问句中除了标准的一些常规外,有一些例外:

  Let’s go home, shall we?

  Let us go home, will you?

  She had to leave, didn’t she?

  Do your homework at once, will you?

  There is not much good news in today’s newspaper, is there?

  Neither of them are right, are they?

  I think he will come to the party won’t he?

  think 后的宾语从句,与其他宾语从句不一样,在初中只有这样一个较特殊的词。这样的句子的反意疑问句的主语要用宾语从句中的主语,其助动词要用宾语从句的助动 词,而肯定还是否定要看主句谓语动词而定,如: I don’t think he is coming to our party, is he?

  [误] I want to know where does he live?

  [正] I want to know where he lives?

  [析] 宾语从句中一律要用陈述语序,而不用疑问语序。

  [误] – I haven’t got a ticket for the football match??

  - Nor I have?

  [正] – I haven’t got a ticket for the football match??

  - Nor (Neither) have I?

  [析] nor, neither 用在简答否定句中时要采用倒装语序。在肯定句的简答句中则要用so, 如: I do my homework very quickly, So does Mary?

  [误] Look! Here the bus comes!

  [正] Look! Here comes the bus!

  [误] Look! Here comes he!

  [正] Look! Here he comes?

  [析] 在 there, here 打头的句子中,如果主语是名词,则要采用倒装语序;如果是人称代词则用一般语序。

  [误] Do you want Mary to go to the cinema with us??

  No, I don’t hope so?

  [正] Do you want Mary to go to the cinema with us??

  No, I hope not?

  [析] 我不这样想,可用 I don’t think so? 但 hope 的否定简答句只能用 I hope not? 这是习惯用法。但这两个词的肯定简答句形是一样的,如: I think so. I hope so?

  [误] That is difficult for us to learn English well?

  [正] It is difficult for us to learn English well?

  [析] It 这里的语法作用是形式主语,而真正的主语是后面的不定式。形式主语和形式宾语都要用 it 而不能用 that, 如: I think it difficult to learn English well? it 在这句中是 think 的形式宾语。

  (三) 例题解析

  1?  There ___ a pencil?box on the desk.

  A .is B. are C. has D. have

  [答案] A.

  [析] There be 句形中的 be 动词要看其后面离它最近的名词而定,如: There are two books and a pencil on the desk? 但却可以讲 There is a pencil and two books on the desk?

  2?  Could you tell me ___ ?

  A? Mrs King where lives B? where does Mrs King live

  C? where Mrs King lives D? Mrs King lives where

  [答案] C.

  [析] 宾语从句中的疑问句要用陈述语序。

  3?  Your brother came to see you, ___ ?

  A? does he B? doesn’t he C? did he D? didn’t he

  [答案] D.

  [析] 前句是肯定句,后面反意疑问句要用否定句,同时 came 为过去时态,所以应用 didn’t he

  4?  It’s getting cloudy, ___ ?

  A? does’ it B? doesn’t it C? is it D? isn’t it

  [答案] D.

  [析] 要区分’s 是 has 还是 is, 这里由 getting 得出’s 是is。

  5?  ___ keep me waiting so long.

  A? Not B? Won’t C? Don’t D? Not to

  [答案] C.

  [析] Don’t + 动词原形为祈始句的否定句。

  6?  Mr Green hasn’t been to Beijing, ___ ?

  A? has he B? hasn’t he C? did he D? didn’t he

  [答案] A.

  [析] 此句 has 是助动词与过去分词构成现在完成时态。

  7?  You have your lunch at school, ___ ?

  A? have you B? haven’t you C? do you D? don’t you

  [答案] D.

  [析] 这里的 have 是实意动词”吃”,而不是助动词。

  8?  ___ sunny day! Let’s go out for a walk.

  A? How a B? How C? What a D? What

  [答案] C.

  [析] 这个感叹句是个省略句,其真实的句子应为 What a sunny day it is!

  9?  – Can you tell me ___ ? – Sure? She’s a nurse?

  A? where is your sister B? where your sister is

  C? what is your sister D? what your sister is

[答案] D.

  [析] who 问的是姓名,如: Who is he? He is Smith? 或 He is my father? What 问的是职业,如: What is he? He is a teacher?

  10?  John likes listening to the radio, ___ ?

  A? does he B? doesn’t he C? doesn’t John D? does Johe

  [答案] B.

  [析] 当名词作主语时,反意疑问句应用代词。

  11?  Neither you nor I ___ on the team.

  A? are B? were C? am D? is

  [答案] C.

  [析] 由 neither … nor … 作连接词作主语时,其谓语动词要与相临近的那个主语相呼应。

  12?  ___ delicious food! I’d like some more.

  A? what a B? How a C? What D? How

  [答案] C.

  [析] 因 food 为不可数名词。

  13?  ___ there a cat under the chair?

  A? Are B? Is C? Has D? Have

  [答案] B.

  [析] 这是 there be 句型的疑问句。

  14?  Could you tell me ___ ?

  A? when the train will arrive B? when the train arrived

  C? when did the train arrive D? when does the train arrives

  [答案] A.

  [析] could 用于现在时疑问句表达了口气的委婉,并不是过去时态。且宾语从句要用陈述语句。

  15?  – ___ bad weather!

  - Yes, But it’s going to be fine soon, I think?

  A? How B? What a C? What an D? What

  [答案] D.

  [析] weather 为不可数名词。

  16?  – Could you tell me ___ ?

  - Yes, They ___ to the library?

  A? where are the twins, have been

  B? where were the twins, have been

  C? where the twins are, have gone

  D? where the twins were, have gone

  [答案] C.

  [析] have been to 是去过什么地方,而现在回来了。 have gone to 是到某地去了,人现在不在这里。

  17?  Go and ___ the TV quickly? The volleyball match will begin right away.

  A? turn off B? turn down C? turn up D? turn on

  [答案] D.

  [析] 这是个祈使句,它由 and 连接两个动词。注意词组搭配的不同含义。

  18?  Let’s go for some tea, ___ ?

  A? shall we B? will we C? do we D? don’t we

  [答案] A.

  [析] Let’s go …, shall we? Let us go …, will you?这是两个特殊的反意疑问句。

  19?  Joan’s short, ___ ?

  A? wasn’t she B? hasn’t she C? isn’t she D? doesn’t she

  [答案] C.

  [析] 在此句中应视’s为is,而不是 has 或 was。

  20?  I don’t know ___ to read the word.

  A? which B? what C? whose D? how

  [答案] D.

  [析] 因不定式 to read 中的 read 是及物动词,已有自己的宾语 the word, 所以应用疑问副词 how。

  21?  He didn’t go to school, ___ he was ill.

  A? for B? but C? and D? so

  [答案] A.

  [析] 这里是表示因果的关系,从句表示原因,所以用 for,放于句尾,且常常前面有一个逗号。so 引起的是结果状语从句,如: He was only twelve, so he couldn’t join the army?

  22?  The young woman can hardly ride a bike, ___ she?

  A? doesn’t B? does C? can’t D? can

  [答案] D.

  [析] hardly 为否定词,所以应视此句为否定句。其后的反意疑问句应用肯定句。

  23?  Tom never goes to the cinema on Sundays, ___ ?

  A? does he B? doesn’t he C? isn’t he D? is he

  [答案] A.

  [析] never 也是否定词,所以应将句子看作否定句。

  24?  Mother said to him, “Don’t ___ on football.”

  A? spend too much time B? to spend too much time

  C? spend too many time D? to spend too many time

  [答案] A.

  [析] time 作为”时间”讲为不可数名词,应用 much 来修饰。当作”次数”讲是可数名词,如 three times 三次,而 Don’t … 这一句是祈使句的否定句。

  25?  Mr White, together with some Japanese friends, ___ visit our school this afternoon.

  A? are going to B? is going to C? have D? has

  [答案] B.

  [析] 句子的主语是Mr? White, 而together with … 是伴随状况,不影响句子的主语。

  26?  There is little water in the glass, ___ ?

  A? is it B? is there C? isn’t it D? isn’t there

  [答案] B.

  [析] 这是 there be 句型的反意疑问句。

  27?  Ampere was thinking about a maths problem, ___ ?

  A? didn’t he B? wasn’t he C? did he D? is he

  [答案] B.

  [析] 这是进行时态的反意疑问句。

 

  28?  She had a good time yesterday, ___ she ?

  A? wasn’t B? didn’t C? hasn’t D? isn’t

  [答案] B.

  [析] had 这里是实意动词而不是助动词。

  29?  We’ll make ___ for you in the front of the car.

  A? a room B? room C? rooms D? some rooms

  [答案] B.

  [析] room 此处为不可数名词,意为”地方,空间”。

  30?  Neither she nor I ___ to the Great wall before.

  A? has gone B? have gone C? have been D? has been

  [答案] C.

  [析] 由neither … nor 连接两个主语时,其谓语动词应与相临近的那个主语相呼应。

  31?  Help me collect these books, ___ ?

  A? are you B? will you C? do you D? shall you

  [答案] B.

  [析] 祈使句的反意疑问句应用 will you, 而Let’s go 例外,其反意疑问句为 shall we?

  32?  The number of deer, mountain lions and wild roses

  ___ change much if people leave things as they are.

  A? don’t B? doesn’t C? isn’t D? didn’t

  [答案] B.

  [析] the number of 为”……的数量、数目”,所以谓语动词用单数形式。而 a number of 要加复数名词,其谓语动词也用复数。

  33?  She’s had breakfast, ___ ?

  A? is she B? isn’t she C? hasn’t she D? has she

  [答案] C.

  [析] 这里的’s应视为 has?

  34?  I wonder ___ .

  A? whose bicycle is it B? it is whose bicycle

  C? is it whose bicycle D? whose bicycle it is

  [答案] D.

  [析] wonder 后的宾语从句应用陈述语序。

  35?  It is good for us ___ morning exercises.

  A? do B? to do C? did D? done

  [答案] B.

  [析] 这里的 it 是形式主语,而真正的主语是不定式 to do …

  36?  Peter has sports very often, ___ ?

  A? does, Peter B? doesn’t he C? doesn’t Peter D? does he

  [答案] B.

  [析] has 这里是实意动词,而主语为名词时其反意疑问句中的主语要用代词。

  37?  Mr? Black said, “Jenny, don’t be late tomorrow?”

  Mr? Black told Jenny ___ .

  A? don’t be late tomorrow B? didn’t be late tomorrow

  C? not be late next morning D? not to be late the next day

  [答案] D.

  [析] tell 一般要加双宾语,其间接宾语是 Jenny, 直接宾语是不定式。而这里用的是不定式的否定形式。

  38?  Li Mei read the newspaper to the granny, ___ ?

  A? does she B? didn’t she C? did she D? wasn’t she

  [答案] B.

  [析] read这里是过去时态,因其主语是第三人称单数,而 read 并未加 s 所以是过去时态。(read 的过去时与过去分词都是 read,只不过读音不同)

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