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教师招聘考试:中小学英语基础知识资料(11)

三、 常见习惯用语

  (一) 知识概要

  由于英语国家的语言习惯与中国的语言习惯有许多不同之处,所以造成了许多同学在做选择或书写,或与人交谈中造成误用中国方式来对英语的问句作解答。例如一 个小女孩十分好看,可爱,外国人见到时会讲: You are so beautiful? 这时的答语应该是 Thank you? 如果外国人发现你的英语不错,他们会讲: Your English is very good? 这时中国人常常会说:不,我说的不好。这纯是一种礼貌的答语,但是不符合英语习惯。它正确的答语应是 Thank you? 虽然交际英语有一些规律可讲,但更重要的是学习外国的生活习惯,了解他们的文化背景,历史渊源,这样才能真正的学好一门外语。

  (二) 正误辨析

  [误] – What can I do for you?

  - Yes, please help me?

  [正] – What can I do for you?

  - I’d like to buy a sweater?

  [析] What can I do for you? 这一问语实际上用于的情景很多,要根据具体情况而定。如在商店中售货员讲这句话应译为:您想要点什么?在其他场合也可以被译为:我能为您做些什么?它的答语应是直接讲出想让对方提供的帮助。

  [误] – Which colour do you like?

  - Sorry, I don’t like?

  [正] – Which colour do you like?

  - I prefer blue?

  [析] 由 which 来提问的问句是要回答具体的选择,而不能泛指,泛泛的回答。如 Yes, I like it?

  [误] Do you like to come with us tonight?

  [正] Would you like to come with us tonight?

  [析] Do you like … 问的是对方的习惯,如: Do you like swimming? Do you like collecting stamps? 而 would you like … 则是一次性的邀请、提议。邀请的英语表达法还有如下几种:

  Shall we go? 我们走吧!

  Let’s go? 让我们走吧!

  How about having a cup of tea? 喝杯茶如何?

  What about a cup of coffee? 喝杯咖啡如何?

  Why not buy it? 为什么不买呢?

  其肯定答语一般为Certainly, Yes, O.K. All right, With pleasure?

  [误] Sorry, I’ve kept you waiting?

  Not at all?

  [正] Sorry, I’ve kept you waiting?

  Never mind?

  [析] “介意不介意”这一问法与答语在中英文中有所不同。如:

  - Do you mind my smoking here? - _________

  A. Yes, do it please?

  B. No, of course not?

  C. Yes, take it please?

  D. No, you can’t take it?

  这时正确的选择应是B。 其意为:不介意,当然不。而A选项则自相矛盾了,它应译为:是的我介意,请抽吧。而D选项是:不介意,你不能抽。当向对方争求意见时,可以有以下问法:

  Do you mind if I open the door?

  Would you mind mailing the letter for me?

  其答语如果是同意应为: Certainly not, not at all?

  而不同意时应为 Yes, 或 I’m sorry?

  [误] What’s that man?

  He is Mike?

  [正] What’s that man?

  He is a teacher?

  [正] Who’s that man?

  He is Mike? (He is Mike’s father?)

  [析] 由 what 提问是问的职业,由 who 提问问的是姓名或身份。

  [误] – How much are they?

  - Half a kilo, please?

  [正] – How many bananas do you want?

  - Half a kilo? Please?

  [析] How much are they? 问的是价格而不是实际物品的多少。

  [误] I’m sorry, but is this the way to the park?

  [正] Excuse me, but is this the way to the park?

  [析] I’m sorry 是对已经做错了的事向对方道歉时的开始语。而 Excuse me? 是在打扰对方之前表达歉意的话。

  [误] – Have a good time tonight!

  - You are the same?

  [正] – Have a good time tonight!

  - The same to you?

  [析] The same to you 是表达我也祝您有个愉快的夜晚,它是美语中的习惯用法。

  [误] – What’s the problem?

  - I’ve got a headache?

  [正] What’s wrong with you?

  I’ve got a headache?

  [析] What’s wrong with you? 是询问对方身体状态如何,而 What’s the problem?是问对方遇到了什么麻烦。

  [误] – Now, I’m back? Can I play?

  - Perhaps? You’d better do your homework first?

  [正] – Now, I’m back? Can I play?

  - I’m afraid not? You’d better do your homework first?

  [析] Perhaps 是表示对一种拿不准的事态的推论,如: Am I right? Perhaps?而 I’m afraid not? 则表达一种不同意的态度。 be afraid 的几种用法有:

  I’m afraid that you are right?

  其后直接加宾语从句。

  - Will you come to my birthday party?

  - I’m afraid not? I have to go to see my father? He is in hospital?

  其后+not,表示否定。

  - Sorry, I don’t want to go there alone, I’m afraid of the dog?

  其后+名词,表示对某人,某物的害怕。

  Mary is afraid of making mistakes in the exam?

  其后+ of + 动名词,表示害怕做某事。

  Mary is afraid to see the teacher because she didn’t do well in the exam?

  其后+ 不定式,表示不敢去做某事。

  [误] – How soon will you be ready?

  - Two days?

  [正] – How soon will you be ready?

  - In two days?

  [析] 此题关键是要根据情景,身临其境,要注意的是对方问了什么,就应答什么。或答了什么就应问什么。 How soon 问的是”还有多久才能作完”,这时要用 in two days, 即在两小时之内即可以作完。如用 How long 提问,则答语可以用 two days。

  [误] – Would you mind if I have some time off?

  - I don’t mind?

  - Monday and Tuesday of next week?

  [正] – Would you mind if I have some time off?

  - When exactly?

  - Monday and Tuesday of next week?

  [析] 有的对话是复杂的,稍有不慎就有可能选错,而且英语中如选错了答案是不容易找出错来的。 I don’t mind 是可以用来回答 Would you mind…这一提问的,但如仔细看一看则会发现我们要选用的不是陈述句而是疑问句。根据下面一句的答语来判定要用 when exactly? 什么时间,这样才能与下句中具体的时间相符合。

  [误] Suppose your name is Tom? The phone rings and you pick it up? The first word you say will probably be “Who are you?”

  [正] Suppose your name is Tom? The phone rings and you pick it up? The first word you say will probably be “Hello? This is Tom speaking?”

  [析] 在英语学习中,习惯用法实际上在某种情况,或某种意义上讲比语法更为重要。如果只从句子的角度上去分析,它们可能都是对的。比如,当你拿起电话时,如果你 想知道对方是谁,可以问”Who’s that(speaking)?”但不要讲”Who are you?”如果你想先介绍一下自己可以讲”This is ×××× speaking”而不要讲”I’m ××××”也不要讲”My name is ×××××.” 就语法而论,”Who are you?” “I’m ××××?””My name is ×××××?”并不错,也是英语中可用的句子,但就打电话这一场合,就不宜用了。

  [误] – Do you think it’s going to rain over the weekend?

  - I don’t hope so?

  [正] – Do you think it’s going to rain over the weekend?

  - I hope not?

  [析] 由于初学者对实际英语口语中表达感情意愿的答语不熟悉,如在肯定答语中 I think so? I hope so? I believe so? 是相同的,但在否定句中却常用 I don’t think so? 但I don’t believe so? 和 I don’t hope so? 则意为:我不信此事和我不希望此事发生。而 I believe not? 和 I hope not? 则为:我想可能不会发生吧!

  [误] – Is anybody there?

  - No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave?

  [正] – Is everybody there?

  - No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave?

  [析] 许多学生在写作和选择答语或问句时总要语法在前,而不是习惯用语在先。所以总是要拘泥疑问句中的不定代词,用 anybody。 但是Is anybody there? 在英语中为:这里有人吗?而Is everybody there?为:全都到齐了吗?所以首先要考虑的是其答语。 No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave?

  [误] – Your handwriting is very good!

  - No, my handwriting is very poor?

  [正] – Your handwriting is very good!

  - Thank you?

  [析] 中国人遇到别人称赞,总是以谦逊为美德。但英美人则往往认为自信是美德。所以当别人夸奖你或赞美你时,就应说: Thank you? 又比如中国人见面时常讲 Where are you going? 或 Have you had your breakfast yet?而英美人则认为你过多的干预别人的私生活了。而他们见面时往往问一些无关紧要的话,如: Hello! How are you going? (你过得怎样) Morning! 等。而 good morning? 和 How do you do? 则被认为是较正规的问候语,在日常生活中则十分少见。

  [误] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: “Excuse me? I’ll go first?”

  [正] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: “Excuse me? I have to go?”

  [析] 这两句答语都是正确的,其关键不是语法,而是习惯问题。如果在这样的场合你讲 I’ll go first? 朋友们会迷惑不解,而 I have to go? 则表示由于外界的特殊原因而造成的你要离去,而你本人则十分不愿做此事。

  [误] – Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

  - I’d like to, and I’m too busy?

  [正] – Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

  - I’d like to, but I’m too busy?

[析] I’m too busy? 与 I’d like to? 在意义上正好相反。所以要用转折连词。这里考查了对词义合乎逻辑的表达能力。所以要强调语言环境,更要强调在语言的基础上的词语辨析。

  [误] – Where’s Deter?

  - Deter will come with us tonight but he isn’t very sure yet?

  [正] – Where’s Deter?

  - Deter may come with us tonight but he isn’t very sure yet?

  [析] 由于 but 所引出的句子可以看出 Deter 的来与不来是十分不确定的,所以应用 may 来表达一个不肯定的事件。

  [误] – Hi, haven’t seen you for ages! You look fine!

  - Great? You look well too?

  [正] – Hi, haven’t seen you for ages! You look fine!

  - Thanks? You look well too?

  [析] 要注意的是 Great 在口语中多表示惊叹,而 Thanks 则表示感谢对方的称赞。 所以对情景谈话要有准确的判定,要根据情景,身临其境,上下对照,周密思考,弄清场合,注意英美人的风俗习惯,注重语义上的词语 辨析,并要进行大量的语言实践练习,扩大实际交际能力。

  (三) 例题解析

  1?  – Would you like to have some rice?

  - _________ .

  A? Yes, I like B? Yes, please C? of course D? Yes, I have

  [答案] B.

  [析] 当对方对你发出邀请的问语时,如果你想接受则讲 Yes, please? 如不想接受则用No, thanks?

  2?  – Nice to see you?

  - _________ .

  A? Good morning B? Happy to meet you, too

  C? Nice to see you, too D? Pleased to meet you, too

  [答案] C.

  [析] 虽然A、B、D三个选项都可以作为某种问候语的答语,但英语中问候语的答语多用重复对方的话,以表达同样的心情。

  3?  – Would you please give me some water?

  - _________ .

  A? Yes, I would B? Certainly C? No, thanks D? Yes, please

  [答案] B.

  [析] 当对方发出十分礼貌的请求帮助的问语时,一般的回答是肯定的。而Yes, please? 为”是的,您请做某事吧”。这一含意显然不对。

  4?  – Thank you very much for helping me?

  - _________ .

  A? You’re welcome B? It doesn’t matter

  C? No need D? Don’t say that

  [答案] A.

  [析] You’re welcome 译为中文为:不用谢。而 It doesn’t matter 则为:没关系。

  5?  – Hello, Lucy? How are you?

  - _________ And you?

  A? Fine, thanks B? Yes, I am

  C? Glad to meet you D? Good afternoon

  [答案] A.

  [析] 在正常交往中一定要避免所问非所答。所以对 How are you? 的答语应为”很好,谢谢!”

  6?  – Help yourself to some meat?

  - _________

  A? It sounds nice. B? Yes, please.

  C? Yes, Let’s help each other. D? Thank you.

  [答案] D.

  [析] Help yourself to some meat. 你自己拿些肉吃吧。其意为主人劝客人不要客气,像在家里一样。

  7?  – Oh, I am not feeling well? I’ve got a cold?

  - _________

  A? Fine, How are you? B? Never mind? Take care

  C? Well, I ‘m sure to get weel soon. D? I’m sorry to hear that?

  [答案] D.

  [析] 这是美国、英国的习惯用语,而B、 C则是中国人常讲的答语。

  8?  – Meimei you speak English very well?

  - _________ .

  A? No, I don’t think so B? Thank you very much

  C? Not good enough D? That’s all right

  [答案] B.

  9?  – “Kate, could you answer the telephone, please?”

  - _________ , Mum? I’ll get it.

  A? Yes, I could B? No, thanks

  C? O?K? D? Yes, but I have no time

  [答案] C.

  [析] 要注意 could 用于口语中是为了讲话的口气委婉,但它不是过去时态,也不是助动词,而应看作情态动词。所以在答语中则不应这样用。

  10?  – Could you look after Polly for me while we’re away?

  - _________

  A? No, thanks. B? With pleasure.

  C? I’m not afraid. D? I’m sure you will.

  [答案] B.

  [析] With pleasure? 是英语中的一句十分客气的答语,用在当对方因你的帮助或你的许诺向你道谢时,表达自己十分乐意为对方效力的口气。

  11?  – Hello! Could I speak to the headmaster, please?

  - _________

  A? Hold on, please. B? That’s the headmaster, please.

  C? Who are you ? please. D? Sorry? I’m not the headmaster.

  [答案] A.

  [析] hold on, please? 是指请对方等一等不要将电话放下的用语。如果要讲我就是的话不能用 that, 而要用 this, 在电话用语中 that 指对方, this 指自己。

  12?  – Happy birthday!

  - _________

  A? Thank you. B? The same to you.

  C? Good luck. D? Congratulations.

  [答案] A.

  [析] the same to you 是同样祝贺对方的意思,不能用于生日这一祝贺语,除非两人的生日在同一天。

  13?  – I’m sorry I don’t know the way, either? You’d better ask that policeman for help??

  - _________

  A? Good night. B? That’s nothing.

  C? Very well. D? Thank you all the same.

  [答案] D.

  [析] 当向对方求助时,对方无能为力,这时的感谢语则为 Thank you all the same? 意为不管如何还是要谢谢你。

  14?  – I fell and hurt my leg last week, So I can’t do anything?

  - _________ .

  A? I’m sorry B? Don’t worry

  C? Good luck D? Bad luck

  [答案] D.

  [析] 如果用A则要用 I’m sorry to hear that?而不能单用 I’m sorry? 因I’m sorry 是向对方道歉。而 bad luck 为真是不幸啊。

  15?  – _________

  - I have got a cough?

  A? What’s your trouble? B? What have you got?

  C? Why did you come here? D? Have you got a cough?

  [答案] A.

  [析] What’s your trouble? 多用于问对方有什么问题、麻烦或得了什么病。这种用语还有 What’s wrong with you?

  16?  – Would you like to go shopping with me?

  - _________

  A? Yes, I’d love to. B? That’s right.

  C? Yes, please. D? Quite well.

  [答案] A.

  [析] 表示愿意作某事应讲:I’d love to? I’d like to?

  17?  – What’s the weather like today!

  - _________

  A? It’s nice for a walk. B? I like autumn best of all.

  C? It will be fine tomorrow. D? It’s rather cold today.

  [答案] D.

  [析] 本题要注意问的是什么,不要所问非所答。因问题是今天的天气怎样,所以只能选D

  18?  – Is Jane in ,please? I want to speak to her?

  - Sorry, she is out? You’d better _________ .

  A? visit her in the office B? call her later

  C? see her this afternoon D? speak to her yourself

  [答案] B.

  [析] call her later 晚些时候再来电话。

  19?  – _________

  - Very well, thank you, and you?

  A? How do you do? B? Good morning?

  C? How are you these days? D? How do you like English?

  [答案] C.

  [析] 本题是由答语来推断问话,所以应熟悉英语的问答习惯: How do you do? 的答语应为 How do you do?

  20?  – How is your mother?

  - _________

  A? She is old. B? She is no better than she was.

  C? She is kind?hearted. D? She is in her forties.

  [答案] B.

  [析] How is your mother? 问的是你妈身体如何,而B选项则是”她不比以前强”。而其他三个选项则是所问非所答。

  21?  – Thank you very much for your help?

  - _________ .

  A? You’re welcome B? Please don’t

  C? There’s no trouble D? No, no

  [答案] A.

  22?  Your uncle has taken you to the cinema? Afterwards you thank him?

  He says ” _________ .”

  A? It was nothing B? I’m glad you enjoyed it

  C? Don’t say it D? No, needn’t

  [答案] B.

  [析] 这是英语的答语,千万不要选A,因它是中文习惯的答语。

  23?  – Thank you for your good present?

  - _________ .

  A? It’s not good B? No, no

  C? My pleasure D? Never mind

  [答案] C.

  24?  When someone did a good deed for you, you should say _________ .

  A.you are too good B.It’s very kind of you C.you are very kind D.I’ll thank you

  [答案] B.

  25?  – I am very sorry? I am late for dinner?

  - _________ .

  A.No, you aren’t B.That’s all right C.Yes, you are D.No, you don’t

  [答案] B.

  [析] That’s all right? 没关系。

  26?  – I’m sorry if I hurt you?

  - _________ .

  A? I’m sorry B? It’s not true

  C? It doesn’t matter D? Don’t say sorry

  [答案] C.

  27?  – I should have gone to see the exhibition with you?

  - _________ .

  A? I’m sorry B? What a pity

  C? It doesn’t matter to me D? That’s terrible

  [答案] B.

  [析] What a pity. 真遗憾。第一句应为我真该和你一起去展览会。

  28?  – Help yourself to some fish?

  - _________ .

  A? You are very kind B? Yes, I’m helping myself

  C? Thank you D? Yes, don’t worry about me

  [答案] C.

  29?  – Are you ready?-______ .

  A? I’m very sorry B? Try to be patient

  C? Not yet, wait a minute D? Do you have the time, please?

  [答案] C.

  [析] not yet 意为还没有完成。

  30?  – Mum, I have passed the exam?

  - _________ .

  A? That’s all right B? Congratulations

  C? You are luck D? Good luck to you

  [答案] B.

31?  – I think I have to leave? I hope we can get together again?

  - _________ .

  A? All right B? That’s all right

  C? O?K? D? I hope so, too

  [答案] D.

  32?  Must I wait till he comes back? .

  A? No, you needn’t B? No, you mustn’t

  C? No, you may not D? No, you can’t

  [答案] A.

  [析] must 提问表示必须这样做吗?而肯定句要用 must, 表示必须做,而否定句则要用 needn’t 表示没有必要做。

  33?  – _________ I pay you the house rent right away?

  - Yes, you have to do it?

  A? Shall B? Way C? Must D? Have

  [答案] C.

  34?  – Don’t you think this colour is too bright?

  - _________

  A? Yes, I agree. B? Yes, but I don’t think so.

  C? Yes, of course not. D? Yes, what’s wrong?

  [答案] A.

  35?  – It was cold yesterday?

  - _________ .

  A? So was it B? So it was

  C? I believe not so D? I believe not

  [答案] B.

  [析] 当答语只是重复对方讲的话时,则不用倒装。因 so it was即为:是的,天气昨天很冷。而当讲前面讲的动作也适合于另一个人时,则要倒装。如: I went to the cinema yesterday? So did I? 表示对方去了电影院,我也去了。

  36?  – What do you think of the song?

  - _________ .

  A? I like music very much B? I like it too

  C? With pleasure D? It sounds sweet

  [答案] D.

  [析] sound 在这里是系动词,为听起来很甜美。系动词后要用形容词,而不要用被动语态。

  37?  Do you like tea or coffee? _________ .

  A? Yes, I do B? Thank you

  C? That’s fine D? Either will do

  [答案] D.

  [析] either will do? 为两者哪个都可以。

  38?  I like your sweater very much? _________ .

  A? No, it’s ugly B? Sorry

  C? Thank you D? You’re welcome

  [答案] C.

  [析] 这是英美语言的习惯。

  39?  He likes travelling by train? _________ .

  A? So do I B? I dos

  C? I like so D? I like it, neither

  [答案] A.

  40?  – How do you like your school?

  - _________ .

  A? I like it very much B? It’s very beautiful

  C? I doesn’t like it D? Very well

  [答案] B.

  [析] How do you like … 是问你们学校是怎样值得你热爱的。也就是为什么你热爱你的学校。

  41?  What a nice day! _________

  A? You’re right. B? No, isn’t it?

  C? Yes, isn’t it? D? Really?

  [答案] C.

  [析] Yes, isn’t it? 是的,难道不是个好天气吗?

  42?  – Hello, _________ ?

  - This is Della speaking?

  A? Who are you B? Are you Tom

  C? Who is that D? Please tell me who are you

  [答案] C.

  [析] 电话用语中 that 指对方,而 this 指自己。

  43?  -What’s he like?

  - _________ .

  A? He likes English B? He is old

  C? He is like a farmer D? He is tall and this

  [答案] D.

  [析] 要区分 What’s he like? 如 What does he like? 前者为:他长得什么样?而后者是:他喜欢什么。

  44?  How did you do your job?

  Not very well, _________ .

  A? I’m sure B? I am afraid

  C? Thank you D? I’m sorry

  [答案] B.

  [析] I am afraid 我恐怕是,我想是。

  45?  – _________ your aunt?

  -She is a principal of a middle school?

  A? What does B? Where does

  C? What is D? Whom is

  [答案] C.

  46?  – _________

  - He is my boss?

  A? What’s the man? B? Who is the man?

  C? How is the man? D? What does the man do?

  [答案] B.

  47?  – May I have your name?

  - _________ .

  A? No, no B? You’re polite

  C? Call me John D? It’s kind of you

  [答案] C.

  48?  – Shall I make coffee for you?

  - _________ .

  A? Yes, thank you B? No, don’t trouble

  C? Don’t trouble this, thank you D? No, don’t make it

  [答案] A.

  49?  – Could you show me the way to Mr? Buown’s office?

  - _________ .

  A? Not at all B? I’m sure

  C? All right D? I can do it

  [答案] C.

  50?  – Shall we go swimming tomorrow afternoon?

  - _________ .

  A? It’s very kind of you B? You are so thoughtful

  C? That’s a good idea D? Yes, we’ll go

  [答案] C.

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